The Japanese Dog Standard (Judging Standard) (partially revised August, 1977)

Medium Size Dog

  1. Essence And Its Expression. The dog has a spirited boldness with a good nature and a feeling of artlessness. It is alert and able to move quickly with nimble, elastic steps.

  2. General Physical Characteristics. Males and females are obviously distinct with proportioned bodies. The frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males have a height to length ratio of 10 to 11, females slightly longer. The height for males is 52 cm, for females 49 cm. A range of 3 cm taller or shorter is allowed.

  3. Ears. Ears are the shape of a small triangle, leaning forward slightly and standing up firmly.

  4. Eyes. Eyes are somewhat triangular and slant upward toward the outside corner of the eye. The color of the iris is very dark brown.

  5. Muzzle. The bridge of the nose is straight, the sides of the mouth firm, the nose hard, and the lips do not have any slackness. Teeth are strong and occlude correctly.

  6. Head. The forehead is wide, the cheeks well-developed, the neck sturdy.

  7. Forelegs. The shoulder blade has moderate angulation and is well-developed. Forearms are straight with paws well-knuckled up.

  8. Hind legs. Hind legs are strong with a wide natural stance. The hock joint is strong and the paws well- knuckled up.

  9. Chest. The chest is deep, with ribs moderately sprung. The forechest is well-developed.

  10. Back and loin. The topline is straight, the loin strong. [Trans note: well-tucked up]

  11. Tail. The tail is thick and powerful. It can be either sickle or curled. In length (when straightened out) it reaches almost to the hock joint.

  12. Coat. Outer coat is stiff and straight, undercoat is soft and thick. Tail hair is slightly longer and stands open. Coat color is sesame, red, black, brindle, or white. The quality and color of the hair should express the characteristics typical of the Japanese dogs.

Demerit Marks

  1. Developmental defects and nutritional deficiency.

  2. Disharmony between the color of the body and the nose.

  3. Spots in the coat color.


  1. Lacking the quality of a Japanese dog.

  2. Overshot or undershot.

  3. Short tail caused by genetic defect.

Notice: Any deviations should be expunged as much as possible.

Large Size Dog (The following items differ from the standard of the medium size dog and should be substituted.)

1. Essence And Its Expression. The dog has a spirited boldness with a good nature and a feeling of artlessness, and conducts itself in a dignified way as well.

2. General Physical Characteristics. Males and females are obviously distinct with proportioned bodies. The frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males have a height to length ration of 10 to 11, females slightly longer. The height for males is 67 cm, for females 61 cm. A range of 3 cm taller or shorter is allowed.

11. Tail. The tail must be curled, thick and strong. In length (when straightened out) it reaches almost to the hock joint.


4. Uncurled tail [Trans note: sickle tail is not allowed in the Akita]

Small Size Dog (The following items differ from the standard of the medium size dog and should be substituted.)

2. General Physical Characteristics. Males and females are obviously distinct with proportioned bodies. The frame is compact with well-developed muscles. Males have a height to length ratio of 10 to 11, females slightly longer. The height for males is 39.5 cm, for females 36.5 cm. A range of 1.5 cm taller or shorter is allowed.

Demerit Mark

4. Short tail caused by genetic defect.

Supplementary Provisions

1. Tail Types

2. Fur Color Types [Trans note: these colors cover all Nihon Ken breeds, see the Judging Resolutions for acceptable Shiba colors]


Judging Resolutions Concerning the Japanese Dog Standard


The premise of the Japanese dog is said to be definitely correct strong teeth, bite, and tooth number. The following method is used to try to correct missing teeth.

1. Missing teeth have the following deductions:

2. It will be enforced as given against missing teeth from the time of the Spring 1985 show.

Level Bite and Irregular Incisors

About abnormal bites

  1. A dog with either a level bite or irregular incisors cannot be awarded “Excellent.”

  2. Overshot is treated the same way as undershot. [Trans note: the basic standard specifies both as disqualifications.]

Color of the Eyes

The iris of the eye has different colors according to the quantity of accumulated pigment: very dark brown, dark brown, brown, yellow, and ash gray appear. Very dark brown is the ideal, but it should not become a black color.

Judgment of the Color of the Eyes

  1. Very dark brown is the color specified in the standard, and the dark color is maintained when the iris is seen dark and as one color with the pupil of the eye.

  2. According to the color given in the standard, eyes that are a little light but that maintain the dark brown color can be awarded “Excellent.”

  3. According to the color given in the standard, remarkably light eyes, with the iris looking like a snake-eye pattern because of light brown or yellow color are a demerit mark.

  4. The iris of the eye showing a light yellow or ash gray color is a large demerit mark. [Trans note: a light iris that contrasts markedly with the pupil is not acceptable.]

What the Eyes of the Small Size Dog Should Be

  1. It is recognized that the shape of the triangle differs from the medium size dog.

  2. Along with the iris being a very dark brown, a strong gaze should be encouraged. [Trans note: the dog should maintain steady eye contact with the judge.]


Permissible limits of fur spots of the large size dog. [Trans note: the Akita. This subsection does not apply to the Shiba.]

Spots are permitted, except for extremely unsightly spots, and large spots in the fur of the trunk.

Note: Large spots in the fur on the trunk are what is called “peony spots.” Also, the extremely unsightly fur spots that are called patches (like the Holstein) are not like the Japanese dog. [Trans note: In the Akita only, small spots are acceptable, but pinto is not.]

About White Markings in the Coat Color

The white fur on the following parts of the dog are considered to be “white markings,” not fur spots. [Trans note: according to judge’s written commentaries, the Japanese Dog is required to have no. 1, 2, and 3, while the markings in 4 and 5 are optional.]

  1. The mouth sides and cheeks of the face (however the reverse mask is excluded). [Trans note: the reverse mask is white to the eyebrows covering the entire face, including white over the bridge of the muzzle. It is the reverse of a black mask.]

  2. Each under-section of the jaw, neck, chest, and stomach.

  3. The fore chest and extending as far as the shoulder joint, but not extending onto the shoulder itself.

  4. The forelegs to the elbow joint, the rear legs to the knee joint.

  5. The tip of the tail.

Note 1: White markings are a distinctive feature of the Japanese dog, but the guiding principle is that the area of white fur should not be expanded, even for white markings.

Note 2: Obvious spots (cotton print) [Trans note: freckling] in the white fur on the legs are a demerit mark.

Coat of Stained White

  1. What is stained white? It is the white fur color that has faded red on the upper part of the ears, neck, back, and hips, on the legs, and also the tail. This is not desirable but is acceptable for white coats.

  2. Stained white coats that have spots with distinct edges are not approved.

Coat of the Small Size Dog

White fur in the small size dog is not desirable and is a demerit mark.

Fur Color of the Medium and Small Size Dogs

  1. It is clear and intense. The guiding principle is that these deep colors be devoid of muddiness.

  2. What is the reverse mask? It is white fur spreading over both cheeks from the upper borders of the eyes and sides of the mouth. It is not desirable and is a demerit mark.

  3. As for fur color, the correct guiding principle is to endeavor to prevent faded color.

The Fur Colors Regarded as Ideal for the Small Size Dog

  1. They are red, sesame, and black. [Trans note: Nippo calls black and tan simply black.]

  2. The good sesame is that which has a reasonable mixture of black, red, and white all over. Those with a strong black predominance in areas are not desirable. [Trans note: a black saddle pattern on the back, black mask or a too heavy black overlay is not desirable. Nippo Chief Judge Higuchi states that the dog should appear not less than 50% red to be considered a red sesame. More black than this percentage would be defined as a black sesame and not desirable in the Shiba although perfectly acceptable in the middle sized Shikoku breed. It is important that the black overlay be present throughout the red coat as stated, rather than sprinkled on the back only. Nippo is currently working to improve this color.]

  3. Black should be rust color.

Note: Regarding the rust color, it should not be a shiny jet-black. It is said to be black with a touch of brown, like a hint of smudging or smoked color.

Black Fur [Trans note: black and tan]

All of the following things are undesirable and are demerit marks:

  1. That which mars the dignity of the face (the reverse mask).

  2. The spreading of the four eyes pattern [Trans note: meaning the tan spots over the eyes.]

  3. An excessive amount of tan on the head, neck, back, trunk, etc.

  4. Showing a gray-black color or an eggplant dark blue color on maturity.

Body Height

  1. Body height is measured a little behind the tip of the shoulder blade, pressing down the coat.

  2. As for body height, the mean is the ideal. The ranking order for body height is as given in the standard, with the maximum and minimum body heights ranked according to their deviation from the mean.

  3. Body height that is not within the range given in the standard for each size is a demerit mark.

What the Sides of the Mouth and the Stop Should Be

  1. The firm sides of the mouth project from the full cheeks.

  2. In addition to the sides of the mouth being firm, it is important that they be thick, full, and round.

  3. The stop is defined, and neither shallow nor deep. A particularly shallow stop is undesirable and is a demerit mark.

  4. An obvious bulge on the bridge of the nose is a demerit mark.

About the Ear

Thinness of the ears, narrow breadth of the ear root, ears set high, long ears, bending of the tip of the ear, incorrect ear lines, lack of forward tilt, etc., all strongly hereditary, are not desirable and are demerit marks.

About Nose Color

  1. Regarding the demerit item in the standard (nose color not corresponding to body color), this means a colored dog that has a red nose, and it is a demerit mark. Restricted to the white dog, the red nose is permitted.

  2. In a colored dog, an extremely light colored nose is considered to be faded color and is not a trait of the Japanese dog and is not desirable. This faded color is considered equivalent to a red nose in the colored dog and is a demerit mark. In the case of the faded nose, the stained white of the approved white dog should not be regarded in the same way as the colored dog.

  3. The pigment of the coat color, nose color, lips, anus, eye color, color of the skin, etc. are observed and the demerit stipulation is applied.

About Small Spots in the Nose Leather

This is the circumstance where a small spot or spots are on some part of the nose leather. In some cases, this is a temporary condition.

Of course, these are not desirable, but when the pigment generally is thought to be what it should be, then merely these small spots are not necessarily a demerit.

Tongue Spots

  1. Tongue spots are undesirable. However, if they are just trifling, this is permitted.

  2. Regarding these trifling tongue spots, when they are in a position where they can be seen, they should be no bigger than about the size of a fingertip. Consideration of how large a spot is allowed depends on the size of the dog.

About the Lower Jaw

A weak lower jaw (duck’s bill) is not desirable.The level of deficiency should determine the level of demerits.

About Slackness of the Lips

Slackness of the lips with the upper lip hanging down remarkably, is a demerit mark.

Chest Depth

A chest depth which is about half the body height is regarded as good. A shallow chest, though, which is less than 45% of the body height, is a demerit mark.

Definition of Straight Back

The general definition of the back is from the first thoracic vertebra to the thirteenth thoracic vertebra, this definition by itself does not connote the straight area. From anatomical studies we know that the straight back area applies to not only the thirteen thoracic vertebrae, but also the seven lumbar vertebrae, and one sacral bone (three sacral vertebrae). Looking at the dog, the back and hips [Trans note: the topline] from the root of the tail, are straight.

Joint Angles of the Four Legs and the Elbows

  1. The joint angles in the accompanying illustrations are regarded as the correct angles for the Japanese dog.

  2. A shallow angle of inclination of the shoulder blade, incorrect limb joint angles, poor development of the forechest, out-turned elbows, all of these are demerit marks.

Deformity or Abnormality of the Hip Joint or Pelvic Area

  1. Deformity or abnormality of the hip joint demands attention, and is a demerit mark.

  2. Weakness of the hip joint and pelvic area is a demerit mark.

About Tightly Grasping Feet

Very slackly grasping feet are undesirable and a demerit mark.

Acquired Damage

  1. Acquired damage that mars to a great extent the expression of the traits considered to be of the Japanese dog is a demerit mark.

  2. If this damage is of intended nature, this should be dealt with strictly.

Conduct of the Handler

  1. Lifting up the head in order to hide improper joint angles, or conceal turning out of the elbows, is prohibited.

  2. The handler is always situated behind the dog. As for the pose in the ring, the dog should stand in a natural way.

Reproductive Organs

  1. The dog with one testicle will get less than a “Good” evaluation.

  2. Both testicles missing is a disqualification.

  3. A confirmed polyp is a disqualification. However, if the dog is completely recovered, it is satisfactory.


The F.C.I standard

The A.K.C standard